Vitamin D status and associated factors in recent-onset type 1 diabetic children in Iran
1 Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center/Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 5th floor, Shariati hospital, North Karegar Avenue, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
3 Growth and Development Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1st floor, Children Medical Center Hospital, Gharib Avenue, Terhran, Iran
4 Institute of Gerontology (IG), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders 2012, 11:12 doi:10.1186/2251-6581-11-12Published: 3 September 2012
In this study, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was assessed in a group of children and adolescent patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
Fifty-three patients with age 8–18 years and duration of T1DM less than 8 weeks were recruited. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake. Sunshine exposure was measured using a questionnaire to quantify the amount of time children spent in the sun and other sun-related habits, and a sun index score was generated. Serum 25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml was considered as vitamin D deficiency. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of vitamin D deficiency.
All patients were vitamin D deficient (77%) or insufficient (23%). In a logistic regression model, it was shown that the risk of being vitamin D deficient was significantly decreased by sunlight exposure ≥ 15 minutes during the weekends versus < 15 minutes (OR: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01–0.75; P=0.029). In addition, vitamin D deficiency in boys was lower than girls in this model (OR: 0.164 [95% CI: 0.02–1.11]; P = 0.063).
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among children and adolescents with T1DM in Iran. Boys and children with ≥ 15 minutes sunlight exposure in weekends were less likely to be vitamin D deficient than girls and those with < 15 minutes sunlight exposure.